“No one chooses to be a refugee. And even more than exile, the people from the North fear the promiscuity and humiliation of confinement in the camps. Many Malian exiles from past rebellions have chosen to reside in town. Like Ittou and her family, the new displaced persons prefer seeking shelter in Niamey.”
Extract from Retour à Tombouctou, Éditions Gallimard 2015.